Selection Criteria for Dental Radiography Standards

Third edition, updated 2015 and 2018 (see version control).

EDITORS: Keith Horner, Kenneth Eaton Copyright FGDP(UK) 2015.

No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission. Please note that all changes made to this guidance are logged on the version control page.

CONTENTS

FOREWORD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

 

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 REMIT

1.2 JUSTIFICATION IN RADIOLOGY

1.3 WHY ARE GUIDELINES NEEDED?

1.4 WHAT ARE GUIDELINES?

1.5 WHY EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDELINES?

1.6 IMPLEMENTATION AND AUDIT

1.7 REVIEW OF GUIDELINES

1.8 UNDERSTANDING THE GUIDELINES

1.9 GUIDELINE METHODOLOGY

1.10 GAPS IN THE EVIDENCE

1.11 OVERVIEW OF RECOMMENDATIONS

1.12 REFERENCES

 

2. USE OF IONISING RADIATION

2.1 RADIATION DOSES AND RISKS IN DENTAL PRACTICE

2.1.1 INTRODUCTION

2.1.2 RADIATION DAMAGE

2.1.3 RADIATION DOSE

2.1.4 FACTORS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE DOSE

2.1.5 THE RISKS

2.1.6 DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS

2.1.7 DOSES AND RISKS IN CONTEXT

2.2 THE USE OF PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY

2.2.1 THE NEW PATIENT TO THE PRACTICE

2.2.2 THE ENDENTULOUS PATIENT

2.2.3 THE ORTHODONTIC PATIENT

2.2.4 PRIOR TO ORAL SURGERY

2.2.5 TRAUMA

2.2.6 TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT PROBLEMS

2.2.7 CONCLUSIONS

2.3 REFERENCES

 

3. RADIOGRAPHS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE DEVELOPING DENTITION

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 EARLY MIXED DENTITION

3.2.1 UPPER LABIAL SEGMENT

3.2.2 LOWER LABIAL SEGMENT

3.2.3 POSTERIOR SEGMENTS

3.3 LATE MIXED DENTITION

3.3.1 LABIAL SEGMENTS

3.3.2 CANINES

3.3.3 DECIDUOUS MOLARS

3.3.4 PERMANENT MOLARS

3.4 ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT

3.5 REFERENCES

 

4. RADIOGRAPHS IN DENTAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 CHILDREN

4.2.1 CARIES RISK ASSESSMENT

4.2.2 HIGH CARIES RISK

4.2.3 MODERATE CARIES RISK

4.2.4 LOW CARIES RISK

4.3 ADULTS

4.3.1 HIGH CARIES RISK

4.3.2 MODERATE CARIES RISK

4.3.3 LOW CARIES RISK

4.4 DIGITAL DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY

4.5 NEWER RADIOGRAPHIC METHODS AND ALTERNATIVES TO RADIOGRAPHS FOR CARIES DIAGNOSIS

4.5.1 CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

4.5.2 ELECTIVE TEMPORARY TOOTH SEPARATION

4.5.3 FIBREOPTIC TRANSILLUMINATION

4.5.4 ELECTRICAL METHODS OF CARIES DIAGNOSIS

4.5.5 LASER FLUORESCENCE METHODS

4.5.6 QUANTITATIVE LASER FLUORESCENCE

4.6 REFERENCES

 

4A. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO RADIOGRAPHY FOR CARIES DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDREN

4A.1 THE EAPD APPROACH

4A.2 REFERENCES

 

5. RADIOGRAPHS IN PERIODONTAL ASSESSMENT

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

5.3 REFERENCES

 

6. RADIOGRAPHS IN ENDODONTICS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 ENDODONTIC DIAGNOSIS

6.3 ROOT CANAL TREATMENT PLANNING

6.3.1 NON-SURGICAL ROOT CANAL TREATMENT

6.3.2 SURGICAL ROOT CANAL TREATMENT

6.4 ROOT CANAL TREATMENT

6.4.1 ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS

6.5 ENDODONTIC FOLLOW-UP

6.6 OTHER ENDODONTIC TREATMENTS

6.6.1 VITAL PULP PROCEDURES

6.6.2 DENTAL TRAUMA

6.7 CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

6.8 REFERENCES

 

7. RADIOGRAPHS IN IMPLANT DENTISTRY

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 REVIEW OF RADIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES

7.2.1 PERIAPICAL RADIOGRAPHY

7.2.2 OCCLUSAL RADIOGRAPHY

7.2.3 PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY

7.2.4 LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY

7.2.5 CONVENTIONAL CROSS–SECTIONAL TOMOGRAPHY

7.2.6 X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

7.2.7 CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

7.2.8 MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

7.3 CHOICE OF TECHNIQUES

7.4 REFERENCES

8. IMAGING STRATEGY FOR THE ADULT PATIENT

 

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 THE NEW ADULT PATIENT

8.2.1 PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY

8.2.2 CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

8.3 SPECIFIC CLINICAL SITUATIONS

8.3.1 EXTRACTION OF TEETH

8.3.2 HEAVILY RESTORED TEETH

8.3.3 TOOTHWEAR

8.3.4 RADIOGRAPHS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ENDODONTIC WORKING LENGTH

8.4 LONG-TERM REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE

8.4.1 PERIODONTAL

8.4.2 CARIES

8.4.3 ENDODONTIC FOLLOW-UP RADIOGRAPHS

8.4.4 DENTAL IMPLANTS 8.5 REFERENCES

 

9. GOOD PRACTICE APPENDICES VERSION CONTROL

9.1 DO’S AND DON’TS

9.1.1 DO

9.1.2 DON’T

9.2 IDEAS FOR AUDIT: DEVELOPING LOCAL GUIDELINES

9.2.1 AN AUDIT TO MEASURE THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHS COMPARED WITH NRPB GUIDELINES 9.2.2 SETTING A STANDARD

9.2.3 INVOLVING ALL TEAM MEMBERS

9.2.4 GATHERING DATA

9.2.5 COMPARING STANDARDS

9.2.6 FORMULATING AN ACTION PLAN

9.2.7 AUDITS INVOLVING TEAMWORK IN DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY

9.3 MORE AUDIT IDEAS

9.4 REFERENCES APPENDICES

VERSION CONTROL

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